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Saturday, July 20, 2019

Key References for Understanding Climate Change

Here are key references for understanding the cause and evidence for global warming and climate change. Also included are references for some of the consequences with a focus on Alaska.   Some of the references link to primary data (such as atmospheric data at Scripps); some assembly may be required.

CO2 Emissions
Boden, Marland & Andres, Global and National Fossil Fuel CO2, 2017
BP Statistical Review of World Energy (annual fossil fuel CO2 emissions, by nation & type)
U.S. Energy Information Agency, Data Tables, U.S. Energy Information Agency, Office of Energy Analysis, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington D.C. data tables, 2014
Houghton 2008 (CO2 emissions from land use changes)
Burton, 2013 (volcanic CO2 emissions)
Lee 2016 (volcanic CO2 emissions)
EIA World CO2 Emissions Forecast to 2050, International Energy Outlook 2017
Forecast CO2 Emissions by Region
ForecastCO2 Emissions by Fuel Type – select appropriate table.

Atmospheric CO2
Global CO2 and del C13 isotopes.
Global O2.  
Formerly available at CDIAC.

Heat Retention by Greenhouse Gases
Tyndall, 1861, 1872, cited in Arrhenius, 1906.
Arrhenius, 1896, On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature on the Ground
Arrhenius, 1906, The Probable Cause of Climate Fluctuations,%20final.pdf
NOAA Greenhouse Gas Index.  Page includes formulas for predictive calculation of radiative forcing as function of concentration, and a table for historical annual radiative forcing for major greenhouse gases.
IPPC 5th Assessment Report, Anthropogenic Effective Radiative Forcing history, pp 1404 – 1409.
Table includes historical radiative forcing for greenhouse gases, and negative radiative forcing for cooling anthropogenic emissions. 
Trenberth, et al, 2009, Earth’s Global Energy Budget. 
Ramaswamy, et al 2001, Radiative Forcing of Climate Change.

Ocean Heat Content

Melting Ice
National Snow and Ice Data Center
NASA Global Ice Viewer
Global Cryosphere Watch
Antarctic and Greenland
Gravity measure of Antarctic and Greenland Ice Loss
IMBIE: Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-Comparison Exercise
Antarctic and Greenland Ice-loss data preceding NASA GRACE mission.
NASA Ice-Bridge Project
Arctic Sea Ice
Polar Science Center
Chart with relative volume loss (km3) 1980 – 2018.
Sequential maps of Arctic sea ice extent and thickness.
Sea Ice Data Portal
NOAA Arctic Report Card
Continental Glaciers
World Glacier Monitoring Service
WGMS Global Glacier Change Bulletin 2013
Zemp et al, 2019, Global glacier mass changes and their contributions to sea-level rise from 1961 to 2016.
Pacific Marine Environment Laboratory, NOAA
UAF Geophysical Institute
Jorgenson, 2006, Abrupt Increase in Permafrost Degradation in Arctic Alaska
USGS, Alaska’s Thawing Permafrost

Warming Surface Temperature

General Climate Change
Climate Dashboard,
IPCC Fifth Climate Assessment, 2013
IPCC Fifth Climate Assessment 2013, Executive Summary, 2013
Fourth National Climate Assessment, Vol. I and II, 2014
Key findings of the 4th National Climate assessment, organized by topic and by region.
NASA Climate Change
JPL Satellite Data & Climate Models, Earth’s Energy Balance, Oceans & Ice, Carbon & Water
NOAA Climate Change
National Climate Data Center/NOAA
NOAA Sea Level Rise Viewer
European Space Agency Climate Work
World Meteorological Organization, Global Climate Observing System

Sea Level
Lambeck et al, 2014, Sea level and global ice volumes from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene
R. Rohde, K. Fleming, Post-Glacial Sea Level
NASA Sea Level
Zemp et al, 2019, Global glacier mass changes and their contributions to sea-level rise from 1961 to 2016.
University of South Florida Satellite Oceanography Laboratory
Sea-Level Rise for the Coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington
Chambers et al, 2016, Evaluation of the Global Mean Sea Level Budget
between 1993 and 2014
French Space Agency, Satellite Altimetry Data website
NASA, New study finds sea level rise accelerating

Alaska and Arctic Climate Change
UAF Research
UAF International Arctic Research Center
Alaska Oceans Observing System
Arctic Research Consortium of the United States
Rick Thoman, at 2019 Weather and Climate Summit, (time marker 1:58 to 3:12)
Rick Thoman, A Century of Alaska Weather and Climate, Science for Alaska Lecture Series
Climatologists on Twitter:
Rick Thoman, IARC,
Brian Brettschneider, UAF,
Zach Labe, UC Irvine, Cornell,
Robert Rohde, Berkeley Earth,

Ocean and Food-Chain Stress
Seabird Die-off
Whale Deaths
Declining Humpback Migration and Calving
Seal Die-off
Krill and Mussel Die-off
Pink Salmon Die-off