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Tuesday, December 22, 2015

The Syrian Civil War

The civil war in Syria is complicated.  

I could also say that the civil war in Syria is a *********** of incredible proportions.  
You can choose your own obscenity to fill in the blank.  Mine has eleven letters.

One of the themes of this blog is the graphical representation of information, because a picture really is worth a thousand words.   I’m hoping that a graphical representation of the conflict can show the complexity of the conflict, and the global scope of the secondary parties to the conflict. 

Any policy that does not recognize the complexity of the war is doomed to failure.  The global scope of the secondary parties raises the risk that the Syrian Civil War could develop into a much larger conflict, in the way that a terrorist act in Serbia in 1914 led to World War I. 

This post will examine the war in a progressive fashion, and build a schematic illustration representing the internal and external combatants, the direct military actions, and the flows of money, weapons and military advisors into the war, and religious, ethnic and political affiliations.  Here is the final schematic:
I'm sure all this will soon be clear. 

Syria
Syria is a small nation on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.  Syria is about the size of Washington State.  It is a bit smaller than Belarus, and a bit larger than Cambodia.

Syria is bordered by Iraq, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel and Jordan.  The population of the country was about 22 million at the beginning of the war in 2011. 

About 12 million people are now homeless due to the war.  About 3.5 million people have fled the country, including about one-half million to Europe.  Most of the refugees are located in Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey.  About 8.5 million people are internally displaced within Syria. 

Although estimates vary, it is likely that about 250,000 people have died in the war to date; perhaps one-half to two-thirds of the deaths were civilians.  There is no estimate on the number of wounded.

Syria has suffered from a multi-year drought from 2006 through at least 2014.  Some climate researchers assert that the drought is due to the northward migration of deserts due to global warming.   Declining agricultural productivity and the rising cost of food may have been factors in the original civil unrest at the beginning of the war.

The Warring Factions
The war began in 2011, as part of the “Arab Spring” revolts throughout the Middle East.  Government suppression of protests was particularly harsh in Syria.   The protests became and armed conflict, and then a civil war, as the violence escalated.  Some of the Syrian Army rebelled, forming the Free Syrian Army.  Other groups also formed, to pursue their own goals, or were pushed into the conflict by the escalating violence on all sides.   By 2013, the BBC estimated that over 1000 distinct armed rebel groups were active in Syria.  Some of these groups have formed alliances, such as the Islamic Front; the alliances are sometimes contentious, and there is violence between rival rebel groups.  Wikipedia lists 38 distinct armed Syrian factions in the war, plus 16 external nations or organizations

I’ve divided the warring factions into seven groups.
·         Syrian Government – a dictatorship of Bashar al-Assad, and the Baathist Party (formerly associated with Saddam Hussein).
·         Free Syrian Army – formed by Arab Spring protesters and rebels from the Syrian Army, this is the group considered to be “moderate” rebels, supported by the U.S. government.
·         Islamic Front – formed by an alliance of seven Islamic groups, and successor to an earlier alliance.  The Islamic Front was formerly allied with the Free Syrian Army, but one of the member groups, Ahrar Al Sham, violently turned on the FSA, capturing weapons.  
·         Al Nusra Front – allied with Al Qaeda.   Formerly associated with the ISIL, but split in the early days of the war.  Relatively small, but one of the most effective of the rebel groups.
·         Syrian Kurds – one of four groups of Kurds (the others being in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran).  A very significant ethnic minority in Northern Syria. 
·         Turkmen – A smaller ethnic minority, but significant because of ties to Turkey.   The escalating conflict between Russia and Turkey results issues regarding Russian aggression against the Turkmen, and Turkish retaliation by shooting down a Russian warplane.
·         ISIL – The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.  The word Levant is significant, because it indicates that ISIL aspires to control an area including Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Israel.   ISIL, like Al Qaeda, is a global jihadist/terrorist organization, with operations in Libya, Egypt, Pakistan, and Indonesia, and capable of performing terrorist acts around the world.  

Figure 1.  Warring Factions in Syria.   Locations are schematic; the Islamic Front and Nusra Front are active in the north of the country.
The besieged Syrian government controls remnants of territory, mostly in Western Syria, with a few islands around population centers in other areas.   The Free Syrian Army and Islamic groups have established a number of enclaves in the heavily populated western part of the country, but most areas are still under government control.  Population centers of Aleppo, Homs, and Damascus have been the site of intense conflict and destruction.   Kurds have gained control of the northern part of the country, along the border with Turkey.  ISIL controls the sparsely populated, eastern and central desert. 

Figure 2.  Active Zones of Control by Warring Factions in Syria.  Figure modified from Wikicommons, 2015.
 
In-Country Direct Military Conflicts
All of the rebel factions are in conflict with the Syrian government, as might be expected.  What is unusual in the Syrian Civil War is the degree of conflict between rebel groups.   ISIL in particular has been savage and brutal in acquiring territory in Iraq and Syria.  Genocide against ethnic minorities and brutal execution of prisoners has been standard procedure as part of a campaign of intimidation against all opponents.   ISIL is in direct military conflict with the Free Syrian Army, the Kurds, the Al Nusra Front and the Syrian government.   The Islamic Front has also been in conflict with the Free Syrian Army.

Figure 3.  Dark red arrows indicate direct military action between the warring factions in Syria.
 
Other Countries Participating or Supporting the Conflict
The war has attracted supporters on various sides of the conflict.  The reasons for intervention by outside countries vary.  In a way, no doubt every country intervening in the war has the best of intentions, to make the situation better, according to their values and interests.

The brutality of the conflict, particularly against civilian populations, provoked  intervention by Western nations.  The use of poison gas by the Syrian government against a rebel village, killing 1700 civilians, brought the United States and the United Kingdom into the conflict, firmly on the side of the rebels.  Wealthy private Islamic interests in the Arabian Gulf region funded ISIL, the Nusra Front and the Islamic Front on the basis of religious fundamentalism.  Sectarian interests against the Sunni fundamentalists, as well as traditional alliances, brought Iran and Hezbollah in support of the Syrian government.  Russia supports the Syrian government as a strategic ally.   Russia has a long-standing friendly relationship with the Syrian government and has maintained a naval facility at Tartus (the only Russian facility in the Mediterranean) since 1971.  Turkey supports the ethnically related Turkmen and opposes the Kurds, who are related to the separatist Kurds within Turkey.  Traditional alliances and conflicts have drawn other nations into the conflict as well.

Figure 4.  External countries and groups involved in the Syrian Civil War.
 
Every nation opposes ISIL.  ISIL has an unmatched record of brutality against all of humanity, including genocide of ethnic and religious minorities in conquered territories; sex slavery of captive women; brutal executions of captured prisoners and kidnap victims from the US, UK, Jordan, Japan, France , Ethiopia and others; the bombing of a Russian passenger jet; a major terrorist attack in Paris, and a minor terrorist attack in the United States.

Direct Military Action by External Countries
External countries have engaged in direct military strikes against combatants in the civil war.  Most of the military actions have been air strikes against ISIL.  The United States, France, Britain, Jordan, and Russia have conducted air strikes against ISIL.  Russia has conducted air strikes against other rebel groups as well.   Turkey has conducted strikes against the Kurds, and shot down a Russian warplane.  Israel has made strikes against Hezbollah weapons shipments and personnel in Syria.

Following the disastrous war in Iraq, the United States has been reluctant to commit ground forces to combat in Syria.  But air strikes alone are insufficient to defeat ISIL, even in support of Iraqi and other ground forces.

Figure 5.  Direct Military Action by External Countries
 
Figure 6. Internal and External Direct Military Actions in Syria.
 
Financial Support, Weapons , and Military Personnel provided by External Countries
External countries have provided financial support, weapons, and military advisers to warring factions in Syria.  Recently, Russia has committed the largest contingent of active ground troops in the conflict. 

Figure 7.  Color-coded arrows indicate flows of money, weapons, resources, and military advisors to warring factions in Syria.
 
Figure 8.  All external military actions and support in the Syrian Civil War.
 
Figure 9.  Internal and External Military Actions, plus External Flows of Money, Weapons and Advisors
 
Affiliations and Alliances
Ethnic and religious affiliations, alliances and long-standing enmities shape and exacerbate the conflict, within Syria and between the other countries involved.    The Shiite – Sunni religious divide is one of the deepest enmities on the planet.   There are further divides between Arab groups seeking government by Islamic Law, and those seeking secular government.   Russia, and nations related to the former Soviet sphere of influence are aligned in opposition to NATO allies.  Enmity between Russia and Turkey is high, and is unlikely to improve in the aftermath of Turkey’s downing of Russia’s warplane.   

Figure 10.  Affiliations and Alliances of Groups Involved in the Syrian Civil War.
 
Conclusion
The civil war in Syria has left a quarter of a million people dead, and 12 million people homeless.  This blog post is intended to provide understanding of the complexity of the war and the number of powerful external countries participating in the war.  For four years, the American government has failed to recognize the seriousness of the conflict, or to implement policies that lead to peace.  The first step toward forming appropriate policies is to better recognize the complexity of the problem.

Here are some of my conclusions.

·         The war will not end as long as external countries continue to supply money, weapons and advisors to the warring factions.  To put out the fire, you must first stop adding fuel. 

·         There is no unilateral policy that can end the war, due to the complexity of the war and the number of powerful nations participating in the war.  Some American politicians believe that America can do some simple thing to solve the problem (such as dropping more bombs).   Any solution to the conflict will require the actions of more than one nation.

·         There can be no political settlement without the approval and active support of Russia, Iran, and Turkey.  Russia and Iran have existing interests in Syria that must be respected to end the war.  Turkey is also essential, because of its proximity, military strength and place of sanctuary for Syrian refugees.

·         The Islamic State (ISIL) is an existential threat to the security of all nations.  It is clear that the air campaign alone is insufficient.  We cannot bomb ISIL until they behave better, and this strategy exacts an inhumane toll on civilian population.  ISIL must be eradicated by coordinated action by the US, NATO, Russia and Iran, including a standing ground force that will not allow a resurgence of the terrorist movement.

·         There is a risk of a larger conflict.  There are troubling similarities between the Syrian Civil War and the situation in the Balkans before World War I.  There are many entangling alliances and powerful external nations, involved in a conflict in a war-torn region, beset by religious and ethnic enmity.  There is a real risk that the Syrian conflict could spiral out of control, and consume some of the countries that are now only on the periphery of the conflict.

From 2011 to the present, the world fiddled while Syria burned.  In fact, in many ways the rest of the world was pouring gasoline on the fire.   An immense human tragedy occurred and is still unfolding.  If any lesson can be learned from this catastrophe, it is that the powerful nations of the world should never again allow such a civil war to occur.   The human costs of the war exceed the wrongs which were the cause of the war.  The people whom America was trying to protect have been damaged more by the civil war than they were damaged by the government of Syria.

·         On a more hopeful note (it is always good to close on a hopeful note, no matter how unlikely), perhaps the process of arriving at peace in Syria can become a template for ending conflicts in neighboring nations – Lebanon, Israel and Palestine, Iraq and the Kurdish territories.  It is possible.

 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

As I was writing this post, my son brought to my attention two other graphical representations of the complexity of the Syrian Civil War.  The first is Slate’s Syrian version of their Middle Eastern Friendship Chart.  I have used this without permission and without profit, and will remove it upon request.
 
The second is from Atlantic Magazine, titled “The Confused Person’s Guide to Middle East Conflict”.

This is also used without permission and without profit, and I will remove it upon request.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Syrian Civil War References
Syrian Civil War.    38 internal factions listed.  16 external countries and groups listed.
Good 5-minute video on the history of the war.   Divides the war into four warring factions with foreign supporters.

Casualties in the Syrian War
Over 250,000 killed.  October, 2015
most reliable estimates between 220,000 and 340,000 killed, as of early 2015.

Syrian Warring Factions
Figure 2 modified from Wikicommons:

       Controlled by the Syrian Armed Forces
       Controlled by the People's Protection Units (Kurdish Forces)
       Controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
       Controlled by the Syrian National Coalition (Opposition Forces)
       Controlled by the al-Nusra Front
       Disputed frontline between the forces

Guide to the Syrian Rebels  -- BBC  Dated 2013
As many as 1000 different armed rebel groups in Syria, representing 100,000 fighters.
Free Syrian Army –  Formed by rebel defectors from Syrian Army in 2011.  “Moderate” rebels supported by the U.S. and some Gulf States.  Leadership has little operational control over the movement.  Leadership acts as spokesman and conduit for weapons and funding.
Islamic Front – An alliance of seven Islamic groups not directly aligned with ISIL.  One of the strongest, Ahrar-Al-Sham, led an earlier Islamic alliance(Syrian Islamic Front) which was allied with the Free Syrian Army.   With the formation of the Islamic Front, Ahrar-Al-Sham turned on the Free Syrian Army, causing the US and UK to suspend military support for rebels in Northern Syria.  Ahrar Al Sham provides social services and public works. 
Nusra Front – includes Al Queda in Iraq, and is one of the most effective rebel groups.
5000 – 7000 fighters. 
Performs social services and public works.
ISIL (Daesh) – fought with other rebels groups, including those considered Islamist.  Targeted Shia and Alawite civilian populations.
5000 fighters (2013)
Kurdish Rebels – YPG
10,000 – 15,000 Kurdish fighters
Syrian Democratic Forces include Kurdish, Arab, Assyrian, Armenian, and Turkmen militias. 
SDF founded in October 2015.
1.5 million to 3.5 million ethnic  Turkmen; estimated 200,000 in Syria.
Discussion of Turkmen – widely varying estimates of population.

Foreign Participants in the Syrian War:
Conflict between Syrian rebel groups.
US govt report on war against ISIL
Indicates no direct strikes against Syrian government.  US provides one hour advance notice of strikes against ISIL.

Interactive site showing global distribution of US foreign aid.

Drought

Complexity of the War


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    8 FALLOPIAN TUBE.
    9 PREGNANCY.
    10 HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
    11 HERPES,
    12 BRING YOUR EX LOVER BACK. ETC. herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  24. hello everyone here i am Jack Mark a medical doctor from United Kingdom , i want to share a great testimony of how Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream saves me from shame and disgrace, my penis size was a big problem to me as the size was really so embarrassing and discouraging, a 39 year old full grown man like me having 4 inches penis and to worsen it i don't last in sex i cant even last two minutes it was really a thing of shame my wife was really tired of me because my sex life was very poor , she never enjoyed sex, i was always thinking and searching for solutions everywhere until last two months when i saw a testimony of how Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream have been helping people from the globe,i saw one MR KENNETH BERTNEY testifying of how Dr AKIOYA helped him enlarge his penis size so i decided to give him a try ,i visited his website link https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ we talked and he gave me steps to follow which i did and to my greatest surprise in less than two weeks of taking the herbal mixture cream my penis grow to 8 inches i couldn't believe my eyes and as i speak now my penis is now 10.5 inches long and i was amazed when my wife said i satisfy her so well now all thanks to Dr AKIOYA herbal mixture cream,i will forever be grateful To him i also learnt that Dr AKIOYA also have the herbal cure to problems like

    PENIS ENLARGEMENT
    ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION
    DIABETES type 1 and type 2
    HERPES GENITAL WART
    LOW SPERM COUNT
    WEAK ERECTION
    BREAST ENLARGEMENT
    PROSTRATE CANCER
    HIV/AIDS
    SPELL OF ALL KINDS LIKE EX BACK,CANCEL DIVORCE,BREAK UP SPELL ,PREGNANCY SPELL,PROMOTION SPELL,JOB SPELL
    ALS
    HPV 123
    PILE
    ASTHMA
    HEART FAILURE
    PREMATURE EJACULATION
    HEPATITIS A,B,C AND MANY MORE
    so if you you are suffering from any of this problems please do not hesitate to contact him now email drakioya17spellhome@gmail.com website http://drakioyaherbalcenter.home.blog
    https://drakioyaherbalhome.blogspot.com/ you can call him or Whatsapp Dr AKIOYA via whatsapp +2348105257464 thanks

    ReplyDelete
  25. My story is probably typical. My Husband fell into an affair with a woman at work and left me. I got the Marriage Spell program by Dr.Amiso, 2days after Lunch of Spell at mid'night by Amiso the Hight Priest help lunched a Magic Love-Spell on my behalf to bring back my Husband,
    My Husband was very obstinate at first, but My Husband Anderson came back home to apologize and ask for my forgiveness, today now we are happier than ever.
    I'm grateful to this Spiritual marriage healer that helped me. i recommend him for anyone having marriage or relationship crisis today quickly consult Dr.Amiso the Spiritual spell caster to return ex love.
    this is his personal email address: herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    1 HIV/AIDS.
    2 BAD DREAM.
    3 HEPATITIS.
    4 LOW SPERM COUNT.
    5 CANCER DISEASES.
    6 FIBROID DISEASES.
    7 GONORRHEA
    8 FALLOPIAN TUBE.
    9 PREGNANCY.
    10 HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
    11 HERPES,
    12 BRING YOUR EX LOVER BACK. ETC. herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  26. I read a comment online of a Califonia Based Journalist Reveals How She find a boyfriend (Mr.Right) 3 months after Her ex boyfriend broke up.
    I send a email message to contact same Dr.Amiso because i have this Powerful Intentions that things will work for me, i believed in testimonies are real life proves. I realised this would be good to share here as I know it will inspire others too.
    fortunate enough for me i came across Amiso email contact on a blog post. Today i'm testifying with joy and happiness to the world...this is one of the most joyful moment of my life. Oduduwa the Great-Love-Spell, Lunched a spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-encharntment spell.
    I'm married for over 6 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me and was looking for a divorce, we broke-up before 4months ago and we came back again after so much begging with nice gifts of love.
    I love my husband so much. I couldn't have done anything to hurt him or make him feel bad anymore..i just wanted him back to loving me forever. today we are both living happily together.i love him so much. My point is, he was my first love (at least that’s what it feels like).
    i'm greateful and thankful to this great man. I was at first having fear of doubt, but i give it a try and it work for my good. I'm certain this will work for you as well,100% sure.
    contact him through his personal amail herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    he has the Powers to resolve the following relationship issues;-
    * Love Spells Win-Back Ex lover
    * Success & promotion magic spell
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR
    * PROTECTIVE HOOK, and Longlife,
    * curse resolution, Penis and Breast Enlargement.
    * spiritual cleansing,Fats Burning,
    * fertility magic - FRUITS OF WOMB,
    * decreeing magic, SPELL LOTTERY & WIN-GAMES SPELL
    The internet really helps a lot in providing quick and urgent solution to life problems.
    herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  27. I read a comment online of a Califonia Based Journalist Reveals How She find a boyfriend (Mr.Right) 3 months after Her ex boyfriend broke up.
    I send a email message to contact same Dr.Amiso because i have this Powerful Intentions that things will work for me, i believed in testimonies are real life proves. I realised this would be good to share here as I know it will inspire others too.
    fortunate enough for me i came across Amiso email contact on a blog post. Today i'm testifying with joy and happiness to the world...this is one of the most joyful moment of my life. Oduduwa the Great-Love-Spell, Lunched a spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-encharntment spell.
    I'm married for over 6 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me and was looking for a divorce, we broke-up before 4months ago and we came back again after so much begging with nice gifts of love.
    I love my husband so much. I couldn't have done anything to hurt him or make him feel bad anymore..i just wanted him back to loving me forever. today we are both living happily together.i love him so much. My point is, he was my first love (at least that’s what it feels like).
    i'm greateful and thankful to this great man. I was at first having fear of doubt, but i give it a try and it work for my good. I'm certain this will work for you as well,100% sure.
    contact him through his personal amail herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    he has the Powers to resolve the following relationship issues;-
    * Love Spells Win-Back Ex lover
    * Success & promotion magic spell
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR
    * PROTECTIVE HOOK, and Longlife,
    * curse resolution, Penis and Breast Enlargement.
    * spiritual cleansing,Fats Burning,
    * fertility magic - FRUITS OF WOMB,
    * decreeing magic, SPELL LOTTERY & WIN-GAMES SPELL
    The internet really helps a lot in providing quick and urgent solution to life problems.
    herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  28. I read a comment online of a Califonia Based Journalist Reveals How She find a boyfriend (Mr.Right) 3 months after Her ex boyfriend broke up.
    I send a email message to contact same Dr.Amiso because i have this Powerful Intentions that things will work for me, i believed in testimonies are real life proves. I realised this would be good to share here as I know it will inspire others too.
    fortunate enough for me i came across Amiso email contact on a blog post. Today i'm testifying with joy and happiness to the world...this is one of the most joyful moment of my life. Oduduwa the Great-Love-Spell, Lunched a spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-encharntment spell.
    I'm married for over 6 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me and was looking for a divorce, we broke-up before 4months ago and we came back again after so much begging with nice gifts of love.
    I love my husband so much. I couldn't have done anything to hurt him or make him feel bad anymore..i just wanted him back to loving me forever. today we are both living happily together.i love him so much. My point is, he was my first love (at least that’s what it feels like).
    i'm greateful and thankful to this great man. I was at first having fear of doubt, but i give it a try and it work for my good. I'm certain this will work for you as well,100% sure.
    contact him through his personal amail herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    he has the Powers to resolve the following relationship issues;-
    * Love Spells Win-Back Ex lover
    * Success & promotion magic spell
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR
    * PROTECTIVE HOOK, and Longlife,
    * curse resolution, Penis and Breast Enlargement.
    * spiritual cleansing,Fats Burning,
    * fertility magic - FRUITS OF WOMB,
    * decreeing magic, SPELL LOTTERY & WIN-GAMES SPELL
    The internet really helps a lot in providing quick and urgent solution to life problems.
    herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  29. I read a comment online of a Califonia Based Journalist Reveals How She find a boyfriend (Mr.Right) 3 months after Her ex boyfriend broke up.
    I send a email message to contact same Dr.Amiso because i have this Powerful Intentions that things will work for me, i believed in testimonies are real life proves. I realised this would be good to share here as I know it will inspire others too.
    fortunate enough for me i came across Amiso email contact on a blog post. Today i'm testifying with joy and happiness to the world...this is one of the most joyful moment of my life. Oduduwa the Great-Love-Spell, Lunched a spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-encharntment spell.
    I'm married for over 6 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me and was looking for a divorce, we broke-up before 4months ago and we came back again after so much begging with nice gifts of love.
    I love my husband so much. I couldn't have done anything to hurt him or make him feel bad anymore..i just wanted him back to loving me forever. today we are both living happily together.i love him so much. My point is, he was my first love (at least that’s what it feels like).
    i'm greateful and thankful to this great man. I was at first having fear of doubt, but i give it a try and it work for my good. I'm certain this will work for you as well,100% sure.
    contact him through his personal amail herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    he has the Powers to resolve the following relationship issues;-
    * Love Spells Win-Back Ex lover
    * Success & promotion magic spell
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR
    * PROTECTIVE HOOK, and Longlife,
    * curse resolution, Penis and Breast Enlargement.
    * spiritual cleansing,Fats Burning,
    * fertility magic - FRUITS OF WOMB,
    * decreeing magic, SPELL LOTTERY & WIN-GAMES SPELL
    The internet really helps a lot in providing quick and urgent solution to life problems.
    herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  30. I read a comment online of a Califonia Based Journalist Reveals How She find a boyfriend (Mr.Right) 3 months after Her ex boyfriend broke up.
    I send a email message to contact same Dr.Amiso because i have this Powerful Intentions that things will work for me, i believed in testimonies are real life proves. I realised this would be good to share here as I know it will inspire others too.
    fortunate enough for me i came across Amiso email contact on a blog post. Today i'm testifying with joy and happiness to the world...this is one of the most joyful moment of my life. Oduduwa the Great-Love-Spell, Lunched a spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-encharntment spell.
    I'm married for over 6 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me and was looking for a divorce, we broke-up before 4months ago and we came back again after so much begging with nice gifts of love.
    I love my husband so much. I couldn't have done anything to hurt him or make him feel bad anymore..i just wanted him back to loving me forever. today we are both living happily together.i love him so much. My point is, he was my first love (at least that’s what it feels like).
    i'm greateful and thankful to this great man. I was at first having fear of doubt, but i give it a try and it work for my good. I'm certain this will work for you as well,100% sure.
    contact him through his personal amail herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    he has the Powers to resolve the following relationship issues;-
    * Love Spells Win-Back Ex lover
    * Success & promotion magic spell
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR
    * PROTECTIVE HOOK, and Longlife,
    * curse resolution, Penis and Breast Enlargement.
    * spiritual cleansing,Fats Burning,
    * fertility magic - FRUITS OF WOMB,
    * decreeing magic, SPELL LOTTERY & WIN-GAMES SPELL
    The internet really helps a lot in providing quick and urgent solution to life problems.
    herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  31. I read a comment online of a Califonia Based Journalist Reveals How She find a boyfriend (Mr.Right) 3 months after Her ex boyfriend broke up.
    I send a email message to contact same Dr.Amiso because i have this Powerful Intentions that things will work for me, i believed in testimonies are real life proves. I realised this would be good to share here as I know it will inspire others too.
    fortunate enough for me i came across Amiso email contact on a blog post. Today i'm testifying with joy and happiness to the world...this is one of the most joyful moment of my life. Oduduwa the Great-Love-Spell, Lunched a spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-encharntment spell.
    I'm married for over 6 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me and was looking for a divorce, we broke-up before 4months ago and we came back again after so much begging with nice gifts of love.
    I love my husband so much. I couldn't have done anything to hurt him or make him feel bad anymore..i just wanted him back to loving me forever. today we are both living happily together.i love him so much. My point is, he was my first love (at least that’s what it feels like).
    i'm greateful and thankful to this great man. I was at first having fear of doubt, but i give it a try and it work for my good. I'm certain this will work for you as well,100% sure.
    contact him through his personal amail herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    he has the Powers to resolve the following relationship issues;-
    * Love Spells Win-Back Ex lover
    * Success & promotion magic spell
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR
    * PROTECTIVE HOOK, and Longlife,
    * curse resolution, Penis and Breast Enlargement.
    * spiritual cleansing,Fats Burning,
    * fertility magic - FRUITS OF WOMB,
    * decreeing magic, SPELL LOTTERY & WIN-GAMES SPELL
    The internet really helps a lot in providing quick and urgent solution to life problems.
    herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  32. I read a comment online of a Califonia Based Journalist Reveals How She find a boyfriend (Mr.Right) 3 months after Her ex boyfriend broke up.
    I send a email message to contact same Dr.Amiso because i have this Powerful Intentions that things will work for me, i believed in testimonies are real life proves. I realised this would be good to share here as I know it will inspire others too.
    fortunate enough for me i came across Amiso email contact on a blog post. Today i'm testifying with joy and happiness to the world...this is one of the most joyful moment of my life. Oduduwa the Great-Love-Spell, Lunched a spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-encharntment spell.
    I'm married for over 6 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me and was looking for a divorce, we broke-up before 4months ago and we came back again after so much begging with nice gifts of love.
    I love my husband so much. I couldn't have done anything to hurt him or make him feel bad anymore..i just wanted him back to loving me forever. today we are both living happily together.i love him so much. My point is, he was my first love (at least that’s what it feels like).
    i'm greateful and thankful to this great man. I was at first having fear of doubt, but i give it a try and it work for my good. I'm certain this will work for you as well,100% sure.
    contact him through his personal amail herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    he has the Powers to resolve the following relationship issues;-
    * Love Spells Win-Back Ex lover
    * Success & promotion magic spell
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR
    * PROTECTIVE HOOK, and Longlife,
    * curse resolution, Penis and Breast Enlargement.
    * spiritual cleansing,Fats Burning,
    * fertility magic - FRUITS OF WOMB,
    * decreeing magic, SPELL LOTTERY & WIN-GAMES SPELL
    The internet really helps a lot in providing quick and urgent solution to life problems.
    herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  33. I read a comment online of a Califonia Based Journalist Reveals How She find a boyfriend (Mr.Right) 3 months after Her ex boyfriend broke up.
    I send a email message to contact same Dr.Amiso because i have this Powerful Intentions that things will work for me, i believed in testimonies are real life proves. I realised this would be good to share here as I know it will inspire others too.
    fortunate enough for me i came across Amiso email contact on a blog post. Today i'm testifying with joy and happiness to the world...this is one of the most joyful moment of my life. Oduduwa the Great-Love-Spell, Lunched a spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-encharntment spell.
    I'm married for over 6 years and it was so terrible because my husband was really cheating on me and was looking for a divorce, we broke-up before 4months ago and we came back again after so much begging with nice gifts of love.
    I love my husband so much. I couldn't have done anything to hurt him or make him feel bad anymore..i just wanted him back to loving me forever. today we are both living happily together.i love him so much. My point is, he was my first love (at least that’s what it feels like).
    i'm greateful and thankful to this great man. I was at first having fear of doubt, but i give it a try and it work for my good. I'm certain this will work for you as well,100% sure.
    contact him through his personal amail herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    he has the Powers to resolve the following relationship issues;-
    * Love Spells Win-Back Ex lover
    * Success & promotion magic spell
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR
    * PROTECTIVE HOOK, and Longlife,
    * curse resolution, Penis and Breast Enlargement.
    * spiritual cleansing,Fats Burning,
    * fertility magic - FRUITS OF WOMB,
    * decreeing magic, SPELL LOTTERY & WIN-GAMES SPELL
    The internet really helps a lot in providing quick and urgent solution to life problems.
    herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete


  34. I make an email contact to Dr.Amiso just three days ago, because i saw on a blog post reading from a comment of a Lady from United States of America, she said dr.Amiso was able to bring back ex love and restore relationship love and trust. my name is Infitdel Anders from Stockholm, few years back i got married to Mr. Anderson who is a medical doctor by profession, we were so much in love to the extent that we both share everything we had in common and we had a baby boy together, we lived a quite and sweet life, but something happen that was last year December, my husband started coming home late at night, for almost three weeks my husband will not return from work until 11:09pm and it wasn't supposed to be so, i complained and ask question why the coming late, he gave excuses of his nature of job. i was so concerned and i have to find out what was actually the issues, i found out that my husband has started keeping outside relationship with a woman from his office, they both work together in the same company, i confronted my husband but he denied, few days later the case becomes worse than ever before, my husband started sleeping outside, from then i noticed that something was wrong somewhere because i never did anything to hurt him or deprived him of anything i had, i willingly share everything with him i mean everything.
    i decided to contact Dr.Amiso email because i have read from online post comments how Dr.Amiso return love and build trust in a relationship. I ask for help via Amiso email address (herbalisthome01@gmail.com) few hours later i received a reply from the email i messaged. and he said i am in the right place that he can help me return my husband back in loving and caring for me. I believed and i give it a try, just few days after he lunched a love spell into air, my husband called me on phone and said he was coming home tonight, i was expecting him, immediately Anderson my husband came home that very night, i was surprise to see him kneeing down to apologize to me that he was sorry about cheating on me and sleeping out late. i noticed that the Love spell lunch was at work, i thank Amiso for his powerful powers to return love and trust into marriage/relationship. this is truly powerful magic love spell.
    so many marriage may be going through similar relationship crisis, don't cry anymore or beg your man to come back, just contact this Dr.Amiso spiritual master, he will help you return your love and you will be happier than ever before. it work for me and i know it will work for you as well.
    Amiso has the powers to Bring back ex love, Put a Stop to Divorcing procedure, Making you find true love of life, Breaking marital evil spells, building Trust and Love. etc. herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  35. Am here to testify of a great spell caster who is very straight forward with his words of casting spells. When my Wife left me for another Man i was so confused,but one a day a friend of mine gave me the email address of this great spell caster called dr Aluya, I contacted this man and explained to him all that i was going through,he then told me to be calm and not worry anymore because my case is a very easy one. At first i never believe all that he was saying until when my husband returned home two days later begging me to forgive him all that he has done to me and to please accept him back into my life,I was so amazed,I never believe it was going to happen that fast.
    This man is truly great indeed. Contact him today for a perfect solution to your love problem,aluya.48hoursspelltemple@gmail.com.  or whatsApp him  +2348055431163

    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete

  37. Today is the most joyful day of my life. Dr.Amiso the Great-Love-Spell Caster Lunched a Love spell on my behalf to recover my ex-husband with his spell of magic and love-enchantment spell, it work for me like magic and i am grateful and thankful.
    Amiso powers are effective all over the world, no matter the country you are, Amiso spell can solve every problem just all he need is your photo pictures and your surname and first name. he is talented and powerfully gifted with powers be-young the physical realms. you can contact him today to solve any challenges you are facing today. here is the email contact to Dr.Amiso herbalisthome01@gmail.com
    These are some of the cases he can solve
    * Love Magic spell to find true love.and Enlargement of Penis or Breast.
    * Magic Spell Love to get married on time and be happy.,
    * Love Spells, Win-Back Ex lover.and Long Life,
    * Success & promotion magic spell.and Fat Burning,
    * lucky charm - BUSINESS STAR. Growth in Company finances.
    * wards - PROTECTIVE HOOK. Protect yourself from Kidnapping and Assassins.
    * curse resolution, Freedom from Generational Causes.
    * spiritual cleansing. Freedom from Nightmare. Freedom from 'bad dream'
    * fertility magic - Be pregnant and give birth to child of your own. herbalisthome01@gmail.com

    ReplyDelete
  38. Hello everyone. I saw comments from people who already got their loan from pure heart loans and then I decided to apply under their recommendations and just few hours ago I confirmed in my own personal bank account a total amount of $25,000 which I requested for. This is really a great news and I am advising everyone who needs real loan to apply through their email (Peterheymannloanoffer@gmail.com) I am happy now that i have gotten the loan I requested for

    ReplyDelete
  39. All thanks to Dr Osebor for helping me out from shame. I was heartbroken because i had very small penis, not nice to satisfy a woman, i had so many relationship curt off because of my situation, i have used so many product which i found online but none could offer me the help i searched for. i saw some few comments about this Doctor called Dr. Osebor and I decided to email him on: oseborwinbacktemple@gmail.com so I decided to give his herbal product a try. i emailed him and he got back to me, he gave me some comforting words with his herbal product for Penis Enlargement,when i receive his product and i start using it  Within 1 week of it, i began to feel the enlargement of my penis, " and now it's just 2 weeks of using his products my penis is about 9 inches longer and strong. I'm so happy..feel free to contact DR Osebor on any types of probles you sick for  on his Email: oseborwinbacktemple@gmail.com or you can also call him on the phone +2348073245515  

    ReplyDelete
  40. I want to inform everyone that H. A. C. is at again in changing people’s life. I have been searching for job everywhere but all to no avail and everything became worse by the day living from hand to mouth. I couldn’t even afford to pay my bills, which lead to my Landlord sending me away from his home. I went to stay with a friend of mine. One faithful morning i was browsing through the internet with my phone seeking for online jobs where i came across a comment of Hackers advertising a Blank ATM card which can be used to hack any ATM Machine all over the world, i never thought this could be real because most advert on the internet are based on fraud, so i decided to give this a try and look where it will lead me to if it can change my life for good. i contacted this hackers and they told me they are from India and also have branches all over the world in which they use in developing there ATM CARDS, and also experts at ATM repairs, programming and execution which i was taught various tips and tricks about breaking into an ATM Machine with a Blank ATM card.i applied for the Blank ATM card and it was delivered to me within 3 days and i did as i was told to and today my life have change from a street walker to my house, there is no ATM MACHINES this BLANK ATM CARD CANNOT penetrate into it because it have been programmed with various tools and software before it will be send to you. my life have really change and i want to share this to the world, i know this is illegal but also a smart way of living Big without the help of the government. if you also want this BLANK ATM CARD i want you to contact the Hackers email on  blankatmhackmechine@gmail.com    and you life will never remain the same.

    Here are the price list for ATM Cards:

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    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
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    ReplyDelete
  43. My Name is Mrs Stella i am from Chicago, i will advice the world that Instead of getting a loan you contact blank atm agent or customer care through their office email, I got my already programmed blank ATM card to withdraw a maximum of $1,000 daily for 30 days. I am so happy about this because i got mine last week and I have used it to get $20,000. Mr Smith is giving out the card just to help the poor and needy though it is illegal and cost little charge for the shipment of the card, but it is something nice and he is not like other people pretending to have the blank ATM cards. And no one gets caught when using the card. get yours from him i fully recommend him. Just send him an email on (blankatm988@gmail.com ) Thank you Mr smith for granting me the privilege of knowing you and giving me financials assistance, i am happy, now i can live again and set up a good business that can sustain me and my family. rush now and be happy like me.

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